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Background
The Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ) was developed to provide a brief self-report tool to mirror an existing investigator-based interview (Attachment Style Interview - ASI). Both aimed to identify individuals with attachment relationship styles that are predictive of depressive disorder. This paper describes the development and scoring of the VASQ and its relationship to poor support and major depression.

Method
Items for the VASQ reflected behaviours, emotions, and attitudes relating to attachment relationship style, drawn directly from the ASI. The VASQ was validated against the ASI for 262 community-based subjects. Test-retest was determined on 38 subjects.

Results
Factor analysis derived 2 factors, labelled 'insecurity' and proximity-seeking'. After eliminating redundant items a scoring system was derived using median scores. The VASQ insecurity dimension had highest mean scores for those with interview-based Angry-dismissive and Fearful styles and was significantly correlated with degree of interview-based insecurity. The proximity-seeking VASQ scores had highest mean for those with Enmeshed interview attachment style and was uncorrelated with ASI insecurity. VASQ scores were highly correlated with a well known self-report measure of insecure attachment (Relationship Questionnaire) and test-retest reliability of the VASQ was satisfactory. The total VASQ score and the insecurity subscale proved highly related to poor support and to depressive disorder. This was not the case for the proximity-seeking dimension.

Conclusion
The VASQ is a brief self-report measure which distinguishes individuals with attachment styles vulnerable for depressive disorder. The use of the measure for screening in research and clinical contexts are discussed.

Background
There has been little prospective investigation of the relationship between adult attachment style and clinical levels of anxiety and major depression. This paper seeks to address this, as well as examining the potentially mediating role of adult insecure attachment styles in the relationship between childhood adverse experience and adult disorder.

Method
154 high-risk community women studied in 1990-1995 were followed up in 1995-1999 to test the role of insecure attachment style in predicting new episodes of anxiety and/or major depressive disorder. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) and the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) were administered at first interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-1V (SCID) administered at first and follow-up interview. Major depression and clinical level anxiety disorder (GAD, Social Phobia or Panic and /or Agoraphobia) were assessed at first contact and for the intervening follow-up period.




 


 

 


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